Муниципальное бюджетное общеобразовательное учреждение города Керчи Республики Крым "Специализированная школа № 1 имени Володи Дубинина"

 







G.G. BYRON

 

 

  

LESSONS 1-2

GEORGE GORDON BYRON AND THE CAUSE OF NATIONAL FREEDOM

 “I will teach, if possible, the stones to rise against earth’s tyrants,” exclaimed Byron in one of his greatest poems “Don Juan.” Indeed, the peoples’ freedom was the cause that Byron, the greatest English poet of the XIX century, served all his life.

He lived in the age of romanticism and was a romantic poet himself.’ Maxim Gorki pointed out to us, there were two wings to the romantic movement. One was reactionary, the other revolu­tionary. It was to that latter current in the romantic movement that Byron belonged.

     George Gordon Byron was born in 1788. When he began to write the French bourgeois revolution was an event of the near past, the reactionary governments of Europe were trying to murder the cause of liberty. Napoleon was trampling down the independence of the European nations, bloodshed, misery and injustice were reigning everywhere. Reaction and oppression were especially strong in England.

     In 1809 Byron went abroad. In his first long poem “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage” (1812) (see p. 56) he has told of his travels over the South and East of Europe. Wherever he went he saw oppression and injustice.-With bitterness he recognized that England was one of the greatest oppressors of national freedom, false to her friends, cruel to the weak and an enemy to liberty. In speaking of England later in “Don Juan” he called her the “gaoler” of nations and said, “the nations deem .her their worst foe.”

After his return Byron took his seat in Parliament. By right of birth he was a member of the House of Lords.1

     His first speech in Parliament was in defence of the workers.

    For five years Byron lived in London. Here he wrote his “Eastern Tales,” “The Giaour"2 (1813), “The Corsair”3 (1814) and others. In these poems Byron’s hero is a rebel against society, often a robber or a pirate. He is proud and independent, but he fights for freedom single-handed.4 After a time Byron began to realise that the efforts of such, a lonely man were futile and ' their purpose selfish, as all he desired was liberty for himself to live, love and do as he chose.

      So this type of hero gradually dropped out of his work, and was replaced by heroes who, were perhaps as proud and as full of rebellion and hatred, but whose purpose was to fight not1 for themselves only, but for the liberty of their country and their people. Such was, for in­stance, the prisoner of Chillon (see extract below) and such were in later poems some of the Italian patriots, the famous poet Dante,8 for instance.

When the English government and English bourgeois society understood that Byron loved liberty and was ready to fight for it at the first opportunity, they made life intolerable for him.

In 1816 Byron left England for ever. He went to live in Italy. There he wrote many of his best poems, “Don Juan,”6 a novel in verse, among them.

     “If a man cannot fight for his freedom at home, let him fight for that of his neighbours,” Byron had once said half sadly, half in jest, yet he intended to do what he said. In Italy he soon joined the Italian movement for national liberation against Austrian oppression. The movement was suppressed, but Byron did not lose courage. “The people by and by will be the stronger,” he said, and the older he grew the more he believed “that revolution alone can save the earth.” (“Don Juan”.)

       Nevertheless Byron had become sceptical of many things in which he believed when he was young. “Don Juan” (1818—1823) — a long poem telling of the hero’s adventures — shows the results of this scepticism and is written in a satirical vein.7

       Soon after the suppression of the Italian movement for independence Byron joined the Greeks in their struggle against the Turks. The cause of national liberation had become the chief purpose of Byron’s life. In Greece Byron fell ill with typhus and in a few days he was no more8 (1824).

       Byron’s body was brought back to England, but the English government did not allow him to lie in the place of honour, Westminster Abbey, where many of England’s great writers are buried. The bourgeois public considered Byron’s poems dangerous and schoolchildren were forbidden to read them. But when in the middle of last century Engels went to England, he found cheap editions of Byron’s poems on every worker’s book-shelf. To-day all progressive-minded people9 value Byron as the singer of the peoples’ independence and liberty.

TASKS to the LESSONS 1-2

Task 1. Read and translate the text.

Task 2. Pick out new words in your vocabulary.
Task 3 Compose 5 sentences with as many new words as possible.
Task 4. Make a summary of the author’s life in chronological order

EXPLANATORY NOTES

  1. the House of Lords Палата лордов.
  1. “The Giaour” „Гяур* (гяуром мусульмане называли человека немусуль­манского вероисповедания; в мусульманских странах это слово было бранное и означало „изгой“, отверженный обществом человек).
  1. “The Corsair” — „Корсар“ (корсар — морской разбойник).
  2. single-handed один на один, одиноко.
  3. Dante Данте Алигиери (1265—1321), великий итальянский поэт, автор „Божественной комедии“, подвёргся преследованию со стороны политиче­ских противников и был изгнан из Флоренции. Байрон изобразил его в своей поэме „Пророчество Данте“ как итальянского патриота, мечтав­шего о воссоединении Италии.
  4. Don Juan Дон Жуан (дон — по-испански господин;.
  5. in a satirical vein в сатирических тонах
  6. he was no more он скончался.
  7. progressive-minded people люди прогрессивного образа мысли.

LESSONS 3-4

GOOD NIGHT

(From "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage’)

Adieu! adieu!1 my native shore

Fades2 o’er3 the waters blue;

The night-winds sigh, the breakers roar,

And shrieks the wild sea-mew.4

Yon sun 0 that sets upon the sea

We follow in his flight;

Farewell awhile to him and thee,

My native Land — Good Night!

A few short hours and he will rise

To give the morrow 6 birth;

And I shall hail the main7 and skies,

But not my mother earth.

Deserted is my own good hall,8

Its hearth is desolate;

Wild weeds are growing on the wall,

My dog howls at the gate.

…………………………………………….

And now I’m in the world alone,

Upon the wide, wide sea,

But why should I for others groan

When none will sigh for me?

Perchance9 my dog will whine in vain,

Till fed by stranger hands;

But long ere 10 I come back again

He’d tear me where he stands.11

With thee, my bark, I’ll swiftly go

Athwart the foaming brine;12

Nor care what land thou bearst me to,

So not again to mine.13                                                                  

Welcome, welcome, ye14 dark-blue waves!

And when you fail my sight,18

Welcome, ye deserts and ye caves,

My native Land — Good Night!

EXPLANATОRY NOTES

1adieu франц. прощай.

2fades здесь исчезает.

3o’er = over; устаревшая форма, которая ещё часто встречается в поэти­ческом языке прошлого столетия.

4and shrieks the wild sea-mew — необычный порядок слов (сказуемое перед подлежащим) — особенность поэтического стиля.

5 yon sun вот это солнце (yon = yonder — тот, там). Слово уоп — устарелое.

Оно часто встречается в старинных народных балладах. Байрон в этом отрывке из поэмы „Паломничество Чайльд Гарольда“ слегка подражает народной балладе и пользуется некоторыми архаизмами, типичными для неё, а также некоторыми стилистическими средствами, которые по своему характеру напоминают народные баллады и песни.

6the morrow = to-morrow.

7the main поэтич. стихия, океан.

8hall здесь дом, замок; the hall — обычно так называются большие дома в родовых имениях.

9 perchance устар. может быть.

10ere устар. прежде чем.

11where he stands на месте.

12the brine поэтич. солёнпя вода, море.

13so not again to mine лишь бы не сяова в мою страну (в Англию).

14уе устар. — you.

15and when you fail my sight и когда вы скроетесь из виду.

THY DAYS ARE DONE

I

Thy days are done, thy fame begun;1

Thy country’s strains record9

The triumphs of her chosen son,

The slaughters of his sword!3

The deeds he did, the fields he won,

The freedom he restored!

 

II

Though thou art4 fall’n, while we are free

Thou shalt not taste of death!5

The generous blood that flow’d from thee

Disdain’d to sink beneath;

Within our veins its currents be,

       Thy spirit on our breath!

Ill

Thy name, our charging hosts along,6

Shall be the battle-word;7

Thy fall, the theme of choral song

From virgin voices pour’d;

To weep would do thy glory wrong;8

Thou shalt not be deplored.

EXPLANATОRY NOTES

  1. thy days are done, thy fame begun. Краткие предложения придают сти­хотворению лаконическую силу, очень свойственную мужественному стилю лирики Байрона.
  2. thy country’s strains record в песнях твоей страны поётся о...
  3. the slaughters of his sword жертвы его меча.
  4. art — старая форма 2-го лица ед. ч. наст. вр. от глагола to be.
  5. thou shalt not taste of death ты не вкусишь смерти, т. е. останешься в нашей памяти (shalt — старая форма 2-го лица ед. ч. от глагола shall).

6 our charging hosts along — во всех наших войсках, когда они идут в атаку (предлог стоит после существительного — поэтический порядок слов).

  1. battle-word боевой клич.
  2. to weep would do thy glory wrong плакать — это лишь вредит твоей славе (т. е. мы не будем плакать, чтобы слезами не омрачать твоей славы).

TASKS to the LESSONS 3-4

Task 1. Read and translate the poems.
Task 2. Pick out new words in your vocabulary.

Task 3. What are the main ideas of the poems?


LESSONS 5-6

THE PRISONER OF CHILLON

When Byron was in Switzerland, he visited an old castle on the Lake of Geneva, the Castle of Chillon. There he heard the story of Bonnivard, a Swiss hero, who in the XV century had fought for the freedom of his country and had been imprisoned by its enemies in the castle of Chillon. For many years he was kept there in chains together with his brothers.

This story produced a deep impression on Byron and he wrote a poem on the subject.

They chained us each to a column stone,1

And we were three — yet each alone; 2

We could not move a single pace,

We could not see each other’s face,

Blit with that pale and livid light

That made us strangers in our sight:3

And thus together — yet apart,

Fettered in hand, but joined in heart...4

I was the eldest of the three,5

And to uphold and cheer the rest

I ought to do — and did my best —6

And each did well in his degree.

The youngest, whom my father loved,

Because our mother’s brow was given 7

To him, with eyes as blue as heaven —

For him my soul was sorely moved; 8

And truly might it be distressed

To see such a bird in such a nest —

For he was beautiful as day.

The other was as pure of mind,

But formed s to combat with his kind, 10

Strong in his frame n, and of a mood

Which ’gainst the world in war had stood,

And perished in the foremost rank

With joy: — but not in chains to pine.

He was a hunter of the hills,

Had followed there the deer and wolf;

To him the dungeon was a gulf,

And fettered feet the worst of ills.

He loathed and put away his food; 13

It was not that ’t was coarse and rude,

For what was this to us or him?

This wasted not his heart or limb; 14

My brother’s soul was of that mould 15

Which in a palace had grown cold, 16

Had his free breathing been denied 17

The range of the free mountain side;

But why delay the truth? — he died.

I saw, but could not hold his head,

Nor reach his dying hand — nor dead,—

Though hard I strove, but strove in vain

To rend and gnash my bonds in twain. 18

He died, and they unlocked hi? chain,

And scooped for him a shallow grave

Even from the cold earth of our cave,

I begged them as a boon 19 to lay

His corse in dust whereon the day

Might shine — it was a foolish thought,

That, even in death his freeborn breast

In such a dungeon could not rest.

 

I might have spared my idle prayer —20

They coldly laughed, and laid him there:

The flat and turfless earth81 above

The being we so much did love:

His empty chain above it leant

Such murder’s fitting monument!

 

TASKS to the LESSONS 5-6

 

Task 1. Read and translate the poem.
Task 2. Pick out new words in your vocabulary.
Task 3. What is the main idea of the poem?

Task 4. Make a literary translation of the extract.

Task 5. Make the presentation using Microsoft Power Point Presentation or Movie Maker.
 

 
EXPLANATORY NOTES
  1. a column stone каменная колонна.

2 yet each alone. Краткость этого неполного предложения (опущен глагол- связка was) и выделение при посредстве рифмы слова alone на конце строки подчёркивают глубокую и вместе с тем сдержанную грусть оди­нокого пленника. Следующие две строки содержат два предложения с па­раллельной конструкцией. Этот параллелизм усиливает впечатление от безысходности положения пленников.

  1. made us strangers in our sight придавая нашим лицам столь странный вид, что мы казались друг другу чужими (т. е. в мёртвенном свете под­земелья мы едва узнавали друг друга).
  2. fettered in hand, but joined in heart. Две части этого неполного предло­

жения противопоставлены друг другу, их лаконичность усиливает кон­траст между физической разъединённостью пленников и их душевным единением (ср. выше примечание к стихотворению Байрона).

  1. I was the eldest of the three. Это место рассказа пленника отличается про­стотой, которая соответствует его простой и крепкой любви к отцу и братьям.
  2. I... did my best я ... делал всё, что мог.
  3. our mother’s brow was given у него было чело нашей матери.
  4. iny soul was sorely moved моя душа болела.

9 formed здесь создан.

10 with his kind с себе подобными, с родом людским.

  1. strong in his frame сильный по сложению.

l2 which ’gainst the world in war had stood. Форма had stood обозначает в этом случае нереальное действие. Эта форма — архаизм (особенность поэтического стиля). Согласно правилам современного литературного языка, надо было бы сказать would have stood (устоял бы против целого мира).

  1. put away his food отказывался от пищи.
  2. this wasted not his heart or limb. Отрицательная форма без вспомогатель­ного глагола—особенность поэтического стиля; часто встречается у Байрона.

l5 of that mould того склада.

   16which in a palace had grown cold —здесь форма had grown тоже вы­ражает нереальное действие (= would have grown).

  1. had his free breathing beeii denied если оы его лишили свободного воздуха.
  2. in twain устар. пбполам.
  3. а Ьоол устар. милость.

20 I might have spared my Idle prayer напрасна была моя тщетная молитва.

21 turfless earth голая земля (букв, не покрытая дёрном).

 

* * *

(From *Don Juan’)

... I will teach, if possible the stones

To rise against earth’s tyrants. Never let it

Be said1 that we still truckle unto thrones; —2

But ye — our children’s children! think how we

Showed what things were before the world was free!

That hour is not for us, but t’is for you.

And as, in the great joy of your millennium,3

You hardly will believe such things were true

As now occur, I thought that 1 would pen 4 you’em; 5

But may 6 their very memory perish too! —

Yet if perchance 7 remembered, still disdain you’em

More than you scorn the savages of yore,8

Who painted their bare limbs, but not with gore. 9

EXPLANATORY NOTES

1never let it be said пусть никто не скажет.

2still truckle unto thrones всё ещё гнём шею перед тронами, т. е. мо­нархами.

3millennium тысячелетие; первоначально так называли далёкую счастливую эру, которая наступит не раньше чем через тысячу лет; впоследствии этим словом стали обозначать вообще счастливое будущее человечества; в этом смысле это слово употреблено здесь у Байрона,

4to реn писать пером, описывать.

5’em вместо them употребляется главным образом в непринуждённом раз­говорном стиле. Переход от высокого пафоса предыдущих строк к чисто разговорному и даже слегка шутливому стилю в выражении pen you’em типичен для Байрона в „Дон Жуане*, где революционный романтический пафос чередуется с иронией и сатирой,

6may здесь пусть,

7perchance устар. может быть,

8of yore устар. в былые времена.

9gore пролитая убийцей кровь; резкий сатирический намёк на кровавую политику англичан. Смысл намёка в том, что антигуманистическая, крово­жадная политика угнетения, которую ведут англичане, ставит их ниже варварских, нецивилизованных народов.