Муниципальное бюджетное общеобразовательное учреждение города Керчи Республики Крым "Специализированная школа № 1 имени Володи Дубинина"

 







James Fenimore Cooper

LESSONS 1-2

James Fenimore Cooper

(1789—1851)

Fenimore Cooper is a representative of American romanticism of the 19th century. The readers of the whole world first of all connect his name with his books about the Indians, though he wrote over 30 novels, some of them historical and some about travelling.

F. Cooper was born in a family of a well-to-do landlord in Burlington, N.J. At 13 he entered Yale University, but failed in his third year. In 1808 Cooper became a midshipman in the U.S. navy. After his resignation in 1811 the future writer settled down in the family estate at Cooperstown.

His novel "The Spy" (1821) about the civil war in America was an instantaneous success. Then he wrote "The Pioneers" (1823), the first of the five romances of the "Leather-Stocking Tales" which include "The Last of the Mohicans" (1826), "The Prairie" (1827), "The Pathfinder" (1840) and "The Deerslayer" (1841). The cycle was named for its protagonist, Natty Bumppo, the frontiersman, or Leather-Stocking, He is just, kind-hearted, alert, adroit and resourceful. He says that all men are brothers irrespective of the colour of their skin. Natty Bumppo regrets the intrusion of civilization. Protesting against it he prefers to live far from the cities, in the woods or prairies. The Indians with whom he is on friendly terms are spiritually closer to him than the white civilized Americans. When he became an old man he joined one of the Indian tribes and died there.

"The Last of the Mohicans" is considered to be F. Cooper's best novel. The description of the life of the Indians prevails in it. In spite of the abundance of uncommon episodes the book truthfully reproduces the historical events and the spirit of the time, and tells much of Indian ethnography. It is a historical and philosophic narrative reflecting the problems and conflicts which touched Cooper's contemporaries. The title of the novel gives quite a definite understanding as to the fate of the Indians. The advance of civilization would bring the Indian people to annihilation.

Though the plot of the novel is linked with the names of white people, the genuine chief character is an Indian, Uncas, the last of the Mohicans. He is portrayed as an ideal type opposed to the vices of the bourgeois civilization.

 

TASK to LESSONS 1-2
Task 1. Read and translate the text.

Task 2. Pick out new words in your vocabulary.

Task 3 Compose a sentence with as many new words as possible.

Task 4. Extend the sentence "The Last of the Mohicans" is considered to be F. Cooper's best novel.”

Task 5. Agree or disagree with me:

- Fenimore Cooper is a representative of English romanticism of the 19th century.

- At 15 he entered Yale University, but failed in his third year.

- His novel "The Spy" (1921) about the civil war in America was an instantaneous success.

- The description of the life of the Hindus prevails in it.

- He is portrayed as an ideal type proposed to the vices of the bourgeois civilization.

Task 6. Compress the text in five sentences.

 






LESSONS 3-4

THE LAST OF THE MOHICANS1

A Narrative of 1757 CHAPTER XXXII

But plagues shall spread, and funeral fires increase, Till the great king, without a ransom paid, To her own Chrysa send the black-ey'd maid.

Pope.3

During the time Uncas was making this disposition of his forces, the woods were as still, and, with the exception of those who had met in council, apparently, as much untenanted, as when they came fresh from the hands of their Almighty Creator. The eye could range, in every direction, through the long and shadowed vistas of the trees; but nowhere was any object to be seen that did not properly belong to the peaceful and slumbering scenery. Here and there a bird was heard fluttering among the branches of the beeches, and occasionally a squirrel dropped a nut, drawing the startled looks of the party, for a moment, to the place; but the instant the casual interruption ceased, the passing air was heard murmuring above their heads, along that verdant and undulating surface of forest, which spread itself unbroken, unless by stream or lake, over such a vast region of country. Across the tract of wilderness, which lay between the Delawares 3 and the village of their enemies, it seemed as if the foot of man had never trodden, so breathing and deep was the silence in which it lay. But Hawk-eye, whose duty led him foremost in the adventure, knew the character of those with whom he was about to contend too well to trust the treacherous quiet.

When he saw his little band collected, the scout threw "Kill-deer" into the hollow of his arm, and making a silent signal that he would be followed, he led them many rods towards the rear, into the bed of a little brook which they had crossed in advancing. Here he halted, and after waiting for the whole of his grave and attentive warriors to close about him, he spoke in Delaware, demanding —

"Do any of my young men know whither this run will lead us?"

A Delaware stretched forth a hand, with the two fingers separated, and indicating the manner in which they were joined at the root, he answered —

"Before the sun could go his own length, the little water will be in the big." Then he added, pointing in the direction of the place he mentioned, "the two make enough for the beavers."

"I thought as much," returned the scout, glancing his eye

upward at the opening in the tree-tops, "from the course it takes, and the bearings of the mountains. Men, we will keep within the cover of its banks till we scent the Hurons."4

His companions gave the usual brief exclamation of assent, but perceiving that their leader was about to lead the way in person, one or two made signs, that all was not as it should be. Hawk-eye, who comprehended their meaning glances, turned, and perceived that his party had been followed thus far by the singing-master.

"Do you know, friend," asked the scout, gravely, and perhaps with a little of the pride of conscious deserving in his' manner, "that this is a band of rangers, chosen for the most desperate service, and put under the command of one who, though another might say it with a better face, will not be apt to leave them idle? It may not be five, it cannot be thirty, minutes before we tread on the body of a Huron, living or dead."

"Though not admonished of your intentions in words," returned David, whose face was a little flushed, and whose ordinarily quiet and unmeaning eyes glimmered with an expression of unusual fire, "your men have reminded me of the children of Jacob going out to battle against the Shechemites,5 for wickedly aspiring to wedlock with a woman of a race that was favoured of the Lord. Now, I have journeyed far, and so-journed much in good and evil, with the maiden ye6 seek; and, though not a man of war, with my loins girded7 and my sword sharpened, yet would I gladly strike a blow in her behalf."

The scout hesitated, as if weighing the chances of such a strange enlistment in his mind, before he answered —

"You know not the use of any weapon. You carry no rifle; and, believe me, what the Mingoes 8 take, they will freely give again."

"Though not a vaunting and bloodily disposed Goliah," 9 returned David, drawing a sling from beneath his particoloured and uncouth attire, "I have not forgotten the example of the Jewish boy. With this ancient instrument of war have I practised much in my youth, and peradventure the skill has not entirely departed from me."

"Ay!" said Hawk-eye,, considering the deer-skin thong and apron, with a cold and discouraging eye; "the thing might do its work among arrows, or even knives; but these Mengwe have been furnished by the Frenchers with a good grooved barrel a man. However, it seems to be your gift to go unharmed amid a fire;

and as you have hitherto been favoured---------- major, you have left

your rifle at a. cock; a single shot before the time would be just twenty scalps lost to no purpose — singer, you can follow; we may find use for you in the shoutings."

"I (hank you, friend," returned David, supplying himself, like his royal namesake, from among the pebbles of the brook; "though not given to the desire to kill, had you sent me away my spirit would have been troubled."

Tasks to Lessons 3-4:

Task 1. Read and translate the text.

Task 2. Pick out new words in your vocabulary.

Task 3 Compose a sentence with as many new words as possible.

Task 4. Compress the sentence " When he saw his little band collected, the scout threw "Kill-deer" into the hollow of his arm, and making a silent signal that he would be followed, he led them many rods towards the rear, into the bed of a little brook which they had crossed in advancing.”

Task 5. Summarize the text in five sentences.

Task 6. In what way does the story begin? Is the reader’s interest awakened at once? If so, how does the author achieve it?

Task 7. From whose point of view is the story told?



LESSONS 5-6



"Remember," added the scout, tapping his own head significantly on that spot where Gamut was yet sore, "we come to fight, and not to musickate.10 Until the general whoop is given, nothing speaks but the rifle.", David nodded, as much as to signify his acquiescence with the terms; and then Hawk-eye, casting another observant glance over his followers, made the signal to proceed.,

Their route lay, for the distance of a mile, along the bed of the water-course. Though protected from any great danger of observation by the precipitous banks, and the thick shrubbery which skirted the stream, no precaution known to an Indian attack was neglected. A warrior rather crawled than walked on each flank, so as to catch occasional glimpses into the forest; and every few minutes the band came to a halt, and listened for hostile sounds, with an acuteness of organs that would be scarcely conceivable to a man in a less natural state. Their march was, however, unmolested, and they reached the point where the lesser stream was lost in the greater, without the smallest evidence that their progress had been noted. Here the scout again halted to consult the signs of the forest.

"We are likely to have a good day for a fight," he said, in English, addressing Heyward, and glancing his eye upwards at the clouds, which began to move in broad sheets across the firmament; "a bright sun and a glittering barrel are no friends to true sight. Every thing is favourable; they have the wind, which will bring down their noises and their smoke too, no little matter in itself; whereas, with us it will be first a shot, and then a clear • view. But here is an end of our cover; the beavers have had the range of this stream for hundreds of years, and what atween u their food and their dams, there is, as you see, many a girdled stub, but few living trees."

Hawk-eye had, in truth, in these few words, given no bad description of the prospect that now lay in their front. The brook was irregular in its width, sometimes shooting through narrow fissures in the rocks, and at others spreading over acres of bottom land, forming little areas that might be termed ponds. Everywhere along its banks were the mouldering relics, of dead trees, in all the stages of decay, from those that groaned on their tottering trunks, to such as had recently been robbed of those rugged coats, that so mysteriously contain their principle of life. A few long, low, and moss-covered piles were scattered among them, like the memorials of a former and long departed generation.

All these minute particulars were noted by the scout, with a gravity and interest that they probably had never before attracted. He knew that the Huron encampment lay a short half

mile up the brook; and, with the characteristic anxiety of one who dreaded a hidden danger, he was greatly troubled at not finding the smallest trace of the presence of his enemy. Once or twice he felt induced to give the order for a rush, and to attempt the village by surprise; but his experience quickly admonished him of the danger of so useless an experiment. Then he listened intently, and with painful uncertainty, for the sounds of hostility in the quarter where Uncas was left; but nothing was audible except the sighing of the wind, that began to sweep over the bosom of the forest in gusts which threatened a tempest. At length, yielding rather to his unusual impatience than taking counsel from his knowledge, he determined to bring matters to an issue, by unmasking his force, and proceeding cautiously, but steadily, up the stream.

The scout had stood, while making his observations, sheltered by a brake, and his companions still lay in the bed of the ravine, through which the smaller stream debouched; but on hearing his low, though intelligible signal, the whole party stole up the bank, like so many dark spectres, and silently arranged themselves around him. Pointing in the direction he wished to proceed, Hawk-eye advanced, the band breaking off in single files, and following so accurately in his footsteps, as to leave, if we except Heyward and David, the trail of but a single man.

The party was, however, scarcely uncovered, before a volley from a dozen rifles was heard in their rear; and a Delaware leaping high into the air, like a wounded deer, fell at his whole length, perfectly dead.

"Ah! I feared some deviltry like this!" exclaimed the scout, in English; adding, with the quickness of thought, in his adopted tongue, "To cover, men, and charge!"

The band dispersed at the word, and before Heyward had well recovered from his surprise, he found himself standing alone with David. Luckily, the Hurons had already fallen back and he was safe from their fire. But this state of things was evidently to be of short continuance; for the scout set the example of pressing on their retreat, by discharging his rifle, and darting from tree to tree, as his enemy slowly yielded ground.

It would seem that the assault had been made by a very small party of the Hurous, which, however, continued to increase in numbers as it retired on its friends, until the return fire was very nearly, if not quite, equal to that maintained by the advancing Delawares. Heyward threw himself among the combatants, and imitating the necessary caution of his companions, he made quick discharges with his own rifle. The contest now grew warm and stationary. Few were injured, as both parties kept their bodies as much protected as possible by the trees; never, indeed, exposing any part of their persons except in the act of taking aim.

Tasks to Lessons 5-6:

Task 1. Read and translate the text.

Task 2. Pick out new words in your vocabulary.

Task 3. Compose three sentences with as many new words as possible.

Task 4. Find the descriptions of the scenery around.

Task 5. Compress the sentence " The scout had stood, while making his observations, sheltered by a brake, and his companions still lay in the bed of the ravine, through which the smaller stream debouched; but on hearing his low, though intelligible signal, the whole party stole up the bank, like so many dark spectres, and silently arranged themselves around him.”

Task 6. Find the main sentence of the extract.

Task 7. Find synonyms to the word “glance”.

Task 8. Which method of portraying characters does the author employ: direct or indirect?

Task 9. What words and expressions does the author use to describe human relations?



LESSONS 7-8

But he chances were gradually growing unfavourable to Hawk-eye and his band. The quick-sighted scout perceived his danger, with­out knowing how to remedy it. He saw it was more dangerous to retreat than to maintain his ground; while he found his enemy throwing out men on his flank, which rendered the task of keeping themselves covered so very difficult to the Delawares, as nearly to silence their fire. At this embarrassing moment, when they began to think the whole of the hostile tribe was gradually encircling them, they heard the yell of combatants, and the rattling of arms, echoing under the arches of the wood, at the place where Uncas was posted; a bottom which, in a mariner, lay beneath the ground on which Hawk-eye and his party were contending.-

The effects of this attack were instantaneous, and to the scout and his friends greatly relieving. It would seem that, while his own surprise had been anticipated, and had consequently failed, the enemy, in their turn, having been deceived in its object and in his numbers, had left too small a force to resist the impetuous onset of the young Mohican. This fact was doubly apparent, by the rapid manner in which the battle in the forest rolled upward towards the village, and by an instant falling-off in the number of their assailants, who rushed to assist in maintaining the front, and, as it now proved to be, the principal point of defence.

Animating his followers by his voice, and his own example, Hawk-eye then gave the word to bear down upon their foes. The charge, in that rude species of warfare, consisted merely in pushing from cover to cover, nigher to the enemy; and in this manoeuvre he was instantly and successfully obeyed. The Hurons were compelled to withdraw, and the scene of the contest rapidly changed from the more open ground on which it had commenced, to a spot where the assailed found a thicket to rest upon. Here the struggle was protracted, arduous, and, seemingly, of doubtful issue; the Delawares, though none of them fell, beginning to bleed freely, in consequence of the disadvantage at which they were held.

In this crisis, Hawk-eye found means to get behind the same tree as that which served for a cover to Heyward; most of his own combatants being within call, a little on his right, where they maintained rapid, though fruitless, discharges on their sheltered enemies.

"You are a young man, major," said the scout, dropping the butt of 'Kill-deer' to the earth, and leaning on the barrel, a little fatigued with his previous industry; "and it may be your gift to lead armies, at some future day, ag'in 12 these imps, the Mingoes. You may here see the philosophy of an Indian fight. It consists, mainly, in a ready hand, a quick eye, and a good cover. Now, if you had a company of the Royal Americans here, in what manner would you set them to work in this business?"

"The bayonet would make a road."

"Ay, there is white reason in what you say; but a man must ask himself, in this wilderness, how many lives he can spare. No — horse," * continued the scout, shaking his' head, like one . who mused; "horse, I am ashamed to say, must, sooner or later, decide these skrimmages.13 The brutes are better than men, and to horse must we come at last! Put a shodden hoof on the moccasin of a red-skin, and if his rifle be once emptied, he will never stop to load it again."

"This is a subject that might better be discussed another time," returned Heyward; "shall we charge?"

"I see no contradiction to the gifts of any man, in passing his breathing spells in useful reflections," the scout replied. "As to a rush, I little relish such a measure; for a scalp or two must be thrown away in the attempt. And yet," he added, bending his head aside, to catch the sounds of the distant combat, ' if we are to be of use to Uncas, these knaves in our front must be gotten rid of!"

Then turning, with a prompt and decided air, he called aloud to his Indians, in their own language. His words were answered by a shout; and, at a given signal, each warrior rnade a swift movement around his particular tree. The sight of so many dark bodies, glancing before their eyes at the same 'instant, drew a hasty, and consequently an ineffectual, fire from the Hurons. Without stopping to breathe, the Delawares leaped, in long bounds, towards the wood, like so many panthers springing upon their prey. Hawk-eye was in front, brandishing his terrible rifle, and animating his followers by his example. A few of the older and more cunning Hurons, who had not been deceived by the artifice which had been practised to draw their fire, now made a close and deadly discharge of their pieces, and justified the appre-hensions of the scout, by felling three of his foremost warriors. But hock was insufficient to repel the impetus of the charge. The Delawares broke into the cover with the ferocity of their natures, and swept away every trace of resistance by the fury of the onset. The combat endured only for an instant, hand to hand, and then the assailed yielded ground rapidly, until they reached the opposite margin of the thicket, where they clung to the cover, with the sort of obstinacy that is so often witnessed in hunted brutes.

* The American forest admits of the passage of horse, there being little

under- brush, and few tangled brakes. The plan of Hawk-eye is the one which

always proved the most successful in the battles between the whites and

the Indians. Wayne, in his celebrated campaign on the Miami, received the

fire of his enemies in line; and then causing his dragoons to wheel round his

flanks, Indians were driven from their covers before they had time to load.

One of the most conspicuous of the chiefs who fought in the battle of Miami

assured the writer, that the red-men could not fight the warriors with "long

knives and leather-stockings"; meaning the dragoons, with their sabres


Tasks to Lessons 7-8:

Task 1. Read and translate the text.

Task 2. Pick out new words in your vocabulary.

Task 3 Compose the plan of the extract in five items with as many new words as possible.

Task 4. Describe the characters of this story.

Task 5. Compress the sentence " At this embarrassing moment, when they began to think the whole of the hostile tribe was gradually encircling them, they heard the yell of combatants, and the rattling of arms, echoing under the arches of the wood, at the place where Uncas was posted; a bottom which, in a mariner, lay beneath the ground on which Hawk-eye and his party were contending.”

Task 6. Give the title of the extract.

Task 7. Put as many questions as possible to the sentence “But he chances were gradually growing unfavourable to Hawk-eye and his band.”

Task 8. Find in this text examples of similes, metaphors, epithets. Comment on their use.

A simile is a figure of speech that directly compares two different things, usually by employing the words "like" or "as". It is different from a metaphor, which compares two unlike things by saying that the one thing is the other thing, unlike the simile that uses word like or as (also "if" and "than", although these are not common).[1]

(eg. Her eyes twinkled like stars.

He fights like a lion.

He runs like a cheetah.)

A metaphor is a literary figure of speech that describes a subject by asserting that it is, on some point of comparison, the same as another otherwise unrelated object. Metaphor is a type of analogy and is closely related to other rhetorical figures of speech that achieve their effects via association, comparison or resemblance including allegory, hyperbole, and simile.

One of the most prominent examples of a metaphor in English literature is the All the world's a stage monologue from As You Like It:

All the world’s a stage,

And all the men and women merely players;

They have their exits and their entrances; — William Shakespeare, As You Like It, 2/7[1]

This quote is a metaphor because the world is not literally a stage. By figuratively asserting that the world is a stage, Shakespeare uses the points of comparison between the world and a stage to convey an understanding about how the world works and the lives of the people within it.

An epithet (from Ancient Greek: ἐπίθετον epitheton, neut. of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added"[1]) or byname is a descriptive term (word or phrase) accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied to seemingly real or fictitious people, divinities, objects, and binomial nomenclature. It is also a descriptive title. For example, Alexander the Great.

LESSONS 9-10

At this critical moment, when the success of the struggle was again becoming doubtful, the crack of a rifle was heard behind the Hurons, and a bullet came whizzing from among some beaver lodges, which were situated in the clearing, in their rear, and was followed by the fierce and appalling yell of the war-whoop.

"There speaks the Sagamore!" u shouted Hawk-eye, answering the cry with his own stentorian voice; "we have them now in face and back!"

The effect on the Hurons was instantaneous. Discouraged by an assault from a quarter that left them no opportunity for cover, their warriors uttered a common yell of disappointment, and breaking off in a body, they spread themselves across the opening, heedless of every other consideration but flight. Many fell, in making the experiment, under the bullets and the blows of the pursuing Delawares.

We shall not pause to detail the meeting between the scout and Chingachgook, or the more touching interview that Duncan held with Munro. A few brief and hurried words served to explain the state of things to both parties; and then Hawk-eye, pointing out the Sagamore to his band, resigned the chief authority into the hands of the Mohican chief. Chingachgook assumed the station to which his birth and experience gave him so distinguished a claim, with the grave dignity that always gives force to the mandates of a native warrior. Following the footsteps of the scout, he led the party back through the thicket, his men scalping the fallen Hurons, and secreting the bodies of their own dead as they proceeded, until they gained a point where- the former was content to make a halt.

The warriors, who had breathed themselves freely in the preceding struggle, were now posted on a bit of level ground, sprinkled with trees in sufficient numbers to conceal them. The land fell away rather precipitately in front, and beneath their eyes stretched, for several miles, a narrow, dark, and wooded vale. It was through this dense and dark forest that Uncas was still contending with the main body of the Hurons.

The Mohican and his friends advanced to the brow of the hill, and listened, with practised ears, to the sounds of the combat. A few birds hovered over the leafy bosom of the valley, frightened from their secluded nests; and here and there a light vapoury cloud, which seemed already blending with the atmosphere, arose above the trees, and indicated some spot where the struggle had been more fierce and stationary.

"The fight is coming up the ascent," said Duncan, pointing in the direction of a new explosion of fire-arms; "we are too much in the centre of their line to be effective."

"They will incline into the hollow, where the cover is thicker," said the scout, "and that will leave us well on their flank. Go, Sagamore; you will hardly be in time to give the whoop, and lead on the young men. I will fight this skrimmage with warriors of my own colour. You know me, Mohican; not a Huron of them all shall cross the swell, into your rear, without the notice of 'Kill-deer'." The Indian chief paused another moment to consider the signs of the contest, which was now rolling rapidly up the ascent, a certain evidence that the Delawares triumphed; nor did he actually quit the place until admonished of the proximity of his friends, as well as enemies, by the bullets of the former, which began to patter among the dried leaves on the ground, like the bits of falling hail which precede the bursting of the tempest." Hawk-eye and his three companions withdrew a few paces to a shelter, and awaited the issue with calmness, that nothing but great practice could impart in such a,scene.

It was not long before the reports of the rifles began to lose the echoes of the woods, and to sound like weapons discharged in the open air. Then a warrior appeared,' here and there, driven to the skirts of the forest, and rallying as he entered the clearing, as at the place where the final stand was to be made. These Were soon joined by others, until a long line of swarfhy figures was to be seen clinging to the cover with the obstinacy of desperation. Heyward began to grow impatient and turned his eyes anxiously in the direction of Chingachgook. The chief was seated on a rock, with nothing visible but his calm visage, considering the spectacle with an eye as deliberate as if he were posted there merely to view the struggle.

"The lime is come for the Delaware to strike!" said Duncan.
"Not so, not so," returned the scout; "when he scents his friends, he will let them know that he is here. See, see; the knaves aregetting in that clump of pines, like bees settling after their
flight. My the Lord, a squaw might put a bullet into the centre of
such a knot of dark-skins!"

At that instant the whoop was given, and a dozen Hurons fell by a discharge from Chingachgook and his band. The shout that followed was answered by a single war-cry from the forest, and a yell passed through the air that sounded as if a thousand throats were united in a common effort. The Hurons staggered, deserting the centre of their line, and Uncas issued from the forest through the opening they left, at the head of a hundred war-riors,

Waving his hands right and left, the young chief pointed out the enemy to his followers, who separated in pursuit. The war now divided, both wings of the broken Hurons seeking protection in the woods again, hotly pressed by the victorious warriors of the Lenape.15 A minute might have passed, but the sounds were already receding in different directions, and gradually losing their distinctness beneath the echoing arches of the woods.

One little knot of Hurons, however, had disdained to seek a cover, and were retiring, like lions at bay, slowly and sullenly up the acclivity, which Chingachgook and his band had just deserted to mingle more closely in the fray. Magua was conspicuous in this party,both by his fierce and savage mien, and by the air of haughty authority he yet maintained.

In his eagerness to expedite the pursuit, Uncas had left himself nearly alone; but the moment his eye caught the figure of Le Subtil,16 every other consideration was forgotten. Raising his cry of battle, which recalled some six or seven warriors, and reckless of the disparity in their numbers, he rushed upon his enemy. Le Renard,16 who watched the movement, paused to receive him with secret joy. But at the moment when he thought the rashness of his impetuous,- young assailant had left him at his mercy, another shout was given, and La, longue Carabine 17 was seen rushing to the rescue, attended by all his white associates. The Huron instantly turned, and commenced a rapid retreat up the ascent.

There was no time for greetings or congratulations; for Uncas, though unconscious of the presence of his friends, continued the pursuit with the velocity of the wind. In vain Hawk-eye called to him to respect the covers;' the young Mohican braved the dangerous fire of his enemies, and soon compelled them to a flight as swift as his own headlong speed. It was fortunate that the race was of short continuance, and that the white men were much favoured both by their position, or the Delaware would soon have outstripped all his companions, and fallen a victim to his own temerity. But ere such a calamity could happen, the pursuers and pursued entered the Wyandot village, within striking distance of each other.

Excited by the presence of their dwellings, and tired of the chase, the Hurons now made a stand, and fought around their council lodge with the fury of despair. The onset and the issue were like the passage and destruction of a whirlwind. The toma-hawk of Uncas, the blows of Hawk-eye, and even the still nervous arm of Munro, were all busy for that passing moment, and the ground was quickly strewed with their enemies. Still Magua, though daring and much exposed, escaped from every effort against his life, with that sort of fabled protection that was made to overlook the fortunes of favoured heroes in the legends of ancient poetry. Raising a yell that spoke volumes of anger and disappointment, the subtle chief, when he saw his comrades fallen, darted away from the place, attended by his two only surviving friends, leaving the Delawares engaged in stripping the dead of the bloody trophies of their victory.

But Uncas, who had vainly sought him in the melee, bounded forward in pursuit; Hawk-eye, Heyward, and David still pressing on his footsteps. The utmost that the scout could effect, was to keep the muzzle of his rifle a little in advance of his friend, to whom, however, it answered every purpose of a charmed shield. Once Magua appeared disposed to make another and a final effort to revenge his losses; but, abandoning his intention as soon as demonstrated, he leaped into a thicket of bushes, through which he was followed by his enemies, and suddenly entered the mouth of the cave already known to the reader. Hawk-eye, who had only forborne to fire' in tenderness to Uncas, raised a shout of success, and proclaimed aloud, that now they were certain of their game. The pursuers dashed into the long and narrow entrance, in time to catch a glimpse of the retreating forms of the Hurons. Their passage through the natural galleries and subterraneous apartments of the cavern was preceded by the shrieks and cries of hundreds of women and children. The place, seen by its dim and uncertain light, appeared like the shades of the infernal regions, across "which unhappy ghosts and savage demons were flitting in multitudes.

Still Uncas kept his eye on Magua, as if life to him possessed but a single object. Heyward and the scout still pressed on his rear, actuated, though possibly in a less degree, by a common feeling. But their way was becoming intricate, in those dark and gloomy passages, and the glimpses of the retiring warriors less distinct and frequent; and for a moment the trace was believed to be lost, when a white robe was seen fluttering in the farther extremity of a passage that seemed to lead up the mountain.

" Tis Cora!" exclaimed Heyward, in a voice in which horror and delight were wildly "mingled.

"Cora! Cora!" echoed Uncas, Bounding forward like a deer.

"Tis the maiden!" shouted the scout. "Courage, lady; we come! — we come!"

The chase was renewed with a diligence rendered tenfold encouraging by this glimpse of the captive. But the way was now rugged, broken, and in spots nearly impassable. Uncas abandoned his rifle, and leaped forward with head-long precipitation. Heyward rashly imitated his example, though both were, a moment afterwards, admonished of its madness, by hearing the bellowing of a piece, that the Hurons found time to discharge down the passage in the rocks, the bullet from which even gave the young Mohican a slight wound.

"We must close!" said the scout, passing his friends by a desperate leap; "the knaves will pick us all off at this distance; and see, they hold the maiden so as to shield themselves!"


Tasks to LESSONS 9-10

Task 1. Scan the first part of the text.

Task 2. Compress the text in 7 sentences.

Task 3. Read and translate the second part of the text.

Task 4. Agree or disagree with me.
Le Renard was conspicuous in this party,both by his fierce and savage mien, and by the air of haughty authority he yet maintained.
The Huron instantly turned, and commenced a rapid retreat up the ascent.
But ere such a calamity could happen, the pursuers and pursued entered the Wanderdot village, within striking distance of each other.
The gun of Uncas, the blows of Hawk-eye, and even the still nervous arm of Munro, were all busy for that passing moment, and the ground was quickly strewed with their enemies.
Hawk-eye, who had only forborne to fire' in tenderness to Uncas, raised a shout of success, and proclaimed aloud, that now they were certain of their game.

Task 5. Transform the sentence into Passive Voice “In vain Hawk-eye called to him to respect the covers;' the young Mohican braved the dangerous fire of his enemies, and soon compelled them to a flight as swift as his own headlong speed”.

Task 6. Complete the end of the extract.

Task 7. Is the plot an important feature of this story or is it of minor importance?

Task 8. What is the author’s attitude to the main character – Uncas? In which lines of this story do we feel it more.

LESSONS 11-12

Though his words were unheeded, or rather unheard, his example was followed by his companions, who, by incredible exer-tions, got near enough to the fugitives to perceive that Cora was homo along between the two warriors,while Magua prescribed he direction and manner of their flight. At this moment the forms of all four were strongly drawn against an opening in the sky, and they disappeared. Nearly frantic with disappointment, Uncas and Heyward increased efforts that already seemed superhuman; and they issued from the cavern on the side of the mountain, in time to note the route of the pursued. The course lay up the ascent, and still continued hazardous and laborious.

Encumbered by his rifle, and, perhaps, not sustained by so deep an interest in the captive as his companions, the scout suffered the latter to precede him a little, Uncas, in his turn, taking the lead of Heyward. In this manner, rocks, precipices, and difficulties, were surmounted in an incredibly short space, that at another time, and under other circumstances, would have been deemed almost insuperable. But the impetuous young men were rewarded, by finding that, encumbered with Cora, the Hurons were losing ground in the race.

"Stay, dog of the Wyandots!" exclaimed Uncas, shaking his bright tomahawk at Magua; "a Delaware girl calls stay!"

"I will go no farther," cried Cora, stopping unexpectedly on a ledge of rocks, that overhung a deep precipice, at no great distance from the summit of the mountain. "Kill me if thou wilt,18 detestable Huron; I will go no farther."

The supporters of the maiden raised their ready tomahawks with the impious joy that fiends are thought to take in mischief, but Magua suddenly stayed the uplifted arms. The Huron chief, after casting the weapons he had wrested from his companions over the rock, drew his knife, and turned to his captive, with a look in which conflicting passions fiercely contended.

"Woman," he said, "choose; the wigwam or the knife of Le Subtil!"

Cora regarded him not, but dropping on her knees, she raised her eyes and stretched her arms towards heaven, saying, in a meek and yet confiding voice,—"I am thine! 19 do with me as thou seest20 best!" , "Woman," repeated Magua, hoarsely, and endeavouring in vain to catch a glance from her serene and beaming eye, "choose!"

But Cora neither heard nor heeded his demand. The form of the Huron trembled in every fibre, and he raised his arm on high,- but dropped it again with a bewildered air, like one who doubted. Once more he struggled with himself, and lifted the keen weapon again — but just then a piercing cry was heard above them, and Uncas appeared, leaping frantically, from a fearful height, upon the ledge. Magua recoiled a step; and one of his assistants, profiting by the chance, sheathed his own knife in the bosom of Cora.

The Huron sprang like a tiger on his offending and already retreating countrymen, but the falling form of Uncas separated the unnatural combatants. Diverted from his object by this interruption, and maddened by the murder he had just witnessed, Magua buried his weapon in the back of the prostrate Delaware, uttering an unearthly shout as he committed the dastardly deed. But Uncas arose from the blow, as the wounded panther turns upon his foe, and struck the murderer of Cora to his feet, by an effort in which the last of his failing strength was expended. Then, with a stern and steady look, he turned to Le Subtil, and indicated, by the expression of his eye, all that he would do; had not the power deserted him. The latter seized the nerveless arm of the unresisting Delaware, and passed his knife into his bosom three several times, before his victim, still keeping his gaze riveted on his enemy with a look of inextinguishable scorn, fell dead at his feet.

"Mercy! mercy! Huron," cried Heyward, from above, in tones nearly choked by horror, "give mercy, and thou shalt receive it."

Whirling the bloody knife up at the imploring youth, the victorious Magua uttered a cry so fierce, so wild, and yet so joyous, that it conveyed the sound of savage triumph to the ears of those who fought in the valley, a thousand feet below. He was answered by a burst from the lips of the scout, whose tall person was just then seen moving swiftly towards him, along those dangerous crags, with steps as bold 'and reckless as if he possessed the power to move in air. But when the hunter reached the scene of the ruthless massacre, the ledge was tenanted only by the dead.

His keen eye took a single look at the victims, and then shot its glances over the difficulties of the ascent in his front. A form stood at the brow of the mountain, on the very edge of the giddy height, with uplifted arms, in an awful attitude of menace. Without stopping to consider his person, the rifle of Hawk-eye was raised; but a rock which fell on the head of one of the fugitives below, exposed the indignant and glowing countenance of the honest Gamut. Then Magua issued from a crevice, and stepping with calm indifference over the body of the last of his associates, he leaped a wide fissure, and ascended the rocks at a point where the arm of David could not reach him. A single bound would carry him to the brow of the precipice, and assure his safety. Before taking the leap, however, the Huron paused, and shaking his hand at the scout, he shouted — "The pale-faces are dogs! the Delawares women! Magua leaves them on the rocks, for the crows!"

Laughing hoarsely, he made a desperate leap, and fell short of his mark; though his hands grasped a shrub on the verge of the height. The form of Hawk-eye had crouched like a beast about to take its spring, and his frame trembled so violently with eagerness, that the muzzle of the half-raised rifle played like a leaf fluttering in the wind. Without exhausting himself with fruitless efforts, the cunning Magua suffered his body to drop to the length of his arms, and found a fragment for his feet to rest on. Then summoning all his powers, he renewed the attempt, and so far succeeded, as to draw his knees on the edge of the mountain. It was now, when the body of his enemy was most collected together, that the agitated weapon of the scout was drawn to his shoulder. The surrounding rocks, themselves, were not steadier than the piece became, for the single instant that it poured out its contents. The arms of the Huron relaxed, and his body fell back a little, while his knees still kept their position. Turning a relentless look on his enemy, he shook a hand in grim defiance. But his hold loosened, and his dark person was seen cutting the air with its head downwards, for a fleeting instant, until it glided past the fringe of shrubbery which clung to the mountain, in its rapid flight to destruction.

COMMENTARY
Mohican (or Mahican) [mouikan] — an Indian people of the upper Hudson River valley.
Pope, Alexander —English poet (1688—1744). The verse is taken from his translation of "Iliad" attributed to Homer —

This is what awaits the Greek army near Troy if the Greek king Agamemnon does not return without ransom the daughter of the Chrysa's priest to the town of Chrysa.
Delaware ['delaw a] — a member of an Indian people of the Delaware valley; the language.
Huron ['hjuaren] — a member of an Iroquoian [,ira'kwoian] people originally of the St. Lawrence valley and Ontario.
the children of Jacob going out to battle against the Shechemites ['si.'kemaits] — The author means the biblical legend related to the fight of the Hebrew patriarch Jacob's sons against the people of the Palestine town of Shechem.
ye — an old form of "you".
with my loins girded (Bib.) — prepared for a journey; ready for action.
The Mingoes (below: the Mengwe and the Iroquois) are the tribes hostile to the Mohicans, Lenape and Delawares, the latter being the tribes of the same stock.
Goliah (or Goliath) [ge'laieB] (Bib.) — a giant whom David killed with a stone from a sling; any man of great size.
to musickate — to play music.
atween — between.
ag'in — against.
skrimmage (or scrimmage) —a confused struggle.
sagamore —a subordinate chief of the Algonquian [ael'gookwien] Indians of the north Atlantic coast.
Lenape (or Leni-Lenape [,leni:la'nopi:]) — See comment 8.
Le Subtil, or Le Renard (Fr.) — Sly Fox.
La longue Carabine (Fr.) — Long Carabine.
thou wilt (old use) — you will — you wish.
thine (old use) —yours.
seest (old use) — 2nd person, singular of "see".

Tasks to LESSONS 11-12:

Task 1. Read and translate the text.

Task 2. Pick out new words in your vocabulary.

Task 3. What is the main idea of the extract?

Task 4. Give pluses and minuses of the extract.

Task 5. Make the literary analysis of the text according to the plan or the presentation using Microsoft Power Point Presentation or Movie Maker.



SELF-CONTROL TASK



Task 1. Name the main characters of the story.

Task 2. Characterize the main heroes of the story.

Task 3. Find the landscape descriptions in this text.

Task 4. Put the sentences into the correct order.

a) At this moment the forms of all four were strongly drawn against an opening in the sky, and they disappeared. Nearly frantic with disappointment, Uncas and Heyward increased efforts that already seemed superhuman; and they issued from the cavern on the side of the mountain, in time to note the route of the pursued.

b) Few were injured, as both parties kept their bodies as much protected as possible by the trees; never, indeed, exposing any part of their persons except in the act of taking aim.

c) A few of the older and more cunning Hurons, who had not been deceived by the artifice which had been practised to draw their fire, now made a close and deadly discharge of their pieces, and justified the apprehensions of the scout, by felling three of his foremost warriors.

d) Across the tract of wilderness, which lay between the Delawares 3 and the village of their enemies, it seemed as if the foot of man had never trodden, so breathing and deep was the silence in which it lay.

e) Without exhausting himself with fruitless efforts, the cunning Magua suffered his body to drop to the length of his arms, and found a fragment for his feet to rest on.

f) The scout hesitated, as if weighing the chances of such a strange enlistment in his mind, before he answered.

g) A warrior rather crawled than walked on each flank, so as to catch occasional glimpses into the forest; and every few minutes the band came to a halt, and listened for hostile sounds, with an acuteness of organs that would be scarcely conceivable to a man in a less natural state.

Task 5.True or False.
After the time Uncas was making this disposition of his forces, the woods were as still, and, with the exception of those who had met in council, apparently, as much untenanted, as when they came fresh from the hands of their Almighty Creator.
When he saw his little band collected, the scout threw "Kill-deer" into the hollow of his arm, and making a silent signal that he would be followed, he led them many rods towards the rear, into the bed of a little brook which they had crossed in advancing.
His companions gave theunusuallong exclamation of assent, but perceiving that their leader was about to lead the way inperson, one or two made signs, that all was not as it should be.
Their march was, however, unmolested, and they reached the point where the lesser stream was lost in the greater, and their progress had been noted.
Many times he felt induced to give the order for a rush, and to attempt the village by surprise; but his experience quickly admonished him of the danger of so useless an experiment.
The Sagamore threw himself among the combatants, and imitating the necessary caution of his companions, he made quick discharges with his own rifle.
The effects of this attack were instantaneous, and to the scout and his friends greatly relieving.
The Hurons were compelled to withdraw, and the scene of the contest rapidly changed from the more open ground on which it had commenced, to a spot where the assailed found a thicket to rest upon.
Hawk-eye was behind, brandishing his terrible rifle, and animating his followers by his example.
The combat endured only for an instant, hand to hand, and then the assailed yielded ground rapidly, until they reached the opposite margin of the thicket, where they clung to the cover, with the sort of obstinacy that is so often witnessed in hunted brutes.
His long speech served to explain the state of things to both parties; and then Hawk-eye, pointing out the Sagamore to his band, resigned the chief authority into the hands of the Mohican chief.
Then a warrior appeared,' here and there, driven to the skirts of the forest, and rallying as he entered the clearing, as at the place where the final stand was to be made.
The Hurons staggered, deserting the centre of their line, and Uncas issued from the forest through the opening they left, at the head of a hundred warriors.
An hour might have passed, but the sounds were already receding in different directions, and gradually losing theirdistinctness beneath the echoing arches of the woods.
Le Renard, who watched the movement, paused to receive him with secret joy.
At this moment the forms of all four were strongly drawn against an opening in the sky, and they disappeared.
The Huron crawled like a snakeon his offending and already retreating countrymen, but the falling form of Uncas separatedthe unnatural combatants.
The latter seized the nerveless arm of the unresisting Delaware, and passed his knife into his bosom three several times, before his victim, still keeping his gaze riveted on his enemy with a look of inextinguishable scorn, fell dead at his feet.
 

 

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